Oppositional Defiant2018-02-21T23:51:58+00:00

Oppositional Defiant Disorder

Oppositional Defiant Disorder

Oppositional Defiant Disorder

Oppositional Defiant Disorder is a childhood disorder that is characterized by negative, defiant, disobedient and often hostile behavior toward adults and authority figures primarily. In order to be diagnosed, the behaviors must occur for at least a period of 6 months.

Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) is characterized by the frequent occurrence of at least four of the following behaviors: losing temper, arguing with adults, actively defying or refusing to comply with the requests or rules of adults, deliberately doing things that will annoy other people, blaming others for his or her own mistakes or misbehavior, being touchy or easily annoyed by others, being angry and resentful, or being spiteful or vindictive.

Negativistic and defiant behaviors are expressed by persistent stubbornness, resistance to directions, and unwillingness to compromise, give in, or negotiate with adults or peers. Defiance may also include deliberate or persistent testing of limits, usually by ignoring orders, arguing, and failing to accept blame for misdeeds.

Hostility can be directed at adults or peers and is shown by deliberately annoying others or by verbal aggression (usually without the more serious physical aggression seen in Conduct Disorder).

Manifestations of the disorder are almost invariably present in the home setting, but may not be evident at school or in the community. Symptoms of the disorder are typically more evident in interactions with adults or peers whom the individual knows well, and thus may not be apparent during clinical examination. Usually individuals with this disorder do not regard themselves as oppositional or defiant, but justify their behavior as a response to unreasonable demands or circumstances.

Symptoms of Oppositional Defiant Disorder:

A pattern of negativistic, hostile, and defiant behavior lasting at least 6 months, during which four (or more) of the following are present:

  • Often loses temper
  • Often argues with adults
  • Often actively defies or refuses to comply with adults’ requests or rules
  • Often deliberately annoys people
  • Often blames others for his or her mistakes or misbehavior
  • Is often touchy or easily annoyed by others
  • Is often angry and resentful
  • Is often spiteful or vindictive

Note: Consider a criterion met only if the behavior occurs more frequently than is typically observed in individuals of comparable age and developmental level.

  • The disturbance in behavior causes clinically significant impairment in social, academic, or occupational functioning.
  • The behaviors do not occur exclusively during the course of a Psychotic or Mood Disorder (such as depression).
  • Criteria are not met for Conduct Disorder, and, if the individual is age 18 years or older, criteria are not met for Antisocial Personality Disorder.

Treatment for Oppositional Defiant Disorder:

Psychotherapy

The central focus of therapy with oppositional defiant disorder is usually behavioral, implemented through parent training. The parent training can often be done in a group setting (to help reduce costs and increase social support) and is often as or more effective as family therapy, conducted with the parents and child. In these courses, which are very psychoeducational in nature, parents learn specific behavioral techniques which help increase the likelihood of maintaining control in the relationship with the child. Gradual shaping of the child’s behavior toward more age-appropriate behaviors is accomplished through the implementation of a behavioral monitoring and reward program.

The alternative method of treatment, family therapy, can be as effective in some cases, as parent training. But because it is usually more expensive and can focus heavily on the child’s behavior and causative factors, it may not be appropriate for all families. Parents will usually find that a parent training class to be more effective as well as less expensive; it therefore should usually be tried first before family therapy.

Medications for Oppositional Defiant Disorder can include:

Very little research has been conducted in the use of medications for oppositional defiant disorder. Therefore, medication is not recommended as a treatment option for this problem.

Self Help for Oppositional Defiant Disorder:

Parent support groups can be extremely helpful in propping up single parents or parents who are having a difficult time with a child who suffers from this disorder. A local community support group for parents is highly recommended. Often times, parent training classes can be found to be run outside and independent of mental health professionals, and can be an effective and useful method in helping treat this disorder.

Symptoms of Oppositional Defiant Disorder:

A pattern of negativistic, hostile, and defiant behavior lasting at least 6 months, during which four (or more) of the following are present:

  • Often loses temper
  • Often argues with adults
  • Often actively defies or refuses to comply with adults’ requests or rules
  • Often deliberately annoys people
  • Often blames others for his or her mistakes or misbehavior
  • Is often touchy or easily annoyed by others
  • Is often angry and resentful
  • Is often spiteful or vindictive

Note: Consider a criterion met only if the behavior occurs more frequently than is typically observed in individuals of comparable age and developmental level.

  • The disturbance in behavior causes clinically significant impairment in social, academic, or occupational functioning.
  • The behaviors do not occur exclusively during the course of a Psychotic or Mood Disorder (such as depression).
  • Criteria are not met for Conduct Disorder, and, if the individual is age 18 years or older, criteria are not met for Antisocial Personality Disorder.

Treatment for Oppositional Defiant Disorder:

Psychotherapy

The central focus of therapy with oppositional defiant disorder is usually behavioral, implemented through parent training. The parent training can often be done in a group setting (to help reduce costs and increase social support) and is often as or more effective as family therapy, conducted with the parents and child. In these courses, which are very psychoeducational in nature, parents learn specific behavioral techniques which help increase the likelihood of maintaining control in the relationship with the child. Gradual shaping of the child’s behavior toward more age-appropriate behaviors is accomplished through the implementation of a behavioral monitoring and reward program.

The alternative method of treatment, family therapy, can be as effective in some cases, as parent training. But because it is usually more expensive and can focus heavily on the child’s behavior and causative factors, it may not be appropriate for all families. Parents will usually find that a parent training class to be more effective as well as less expensive; it therefore should usually be tried first before family therapy.

Medications for Oppositional Defiant Disorder can include:

Very little research has been conducted in the use of medications for oppositional defiant disorder. Therefore, medication is not recommended as a treatment option for this problem.

Self Help for Oppositional Defiant Disorder:

Parent support groups can be extremely helpful in propping up single parents or parents who are having a difficult time with a child who suffers from this disorder. A local community support group for parents is highly recommended. Often times, parent training classes can be found to be run outside and independent of mental health professionals, and can be an effective and useful method in helping treat this disorder.