Schizoid Personality Disorder

Schizoid Personality Disorder

Schizoid Personality Disorder

Schizoid personality disorder (SPD) is a Cluster A Personality Disorder characterized by a pervasive pattern of detachment from social relationships and a restricted range of emotional expression in social settings.

SPD has been conceptualized as deficits in the following areas:

  • Self-concept – such as feelings of inferiority
  • Interpersonal relations – such as fear of intimacy
  • Social adaptation – such as preference for solitary occupational and recreational activities
  • Love and sexuality – such as celibacy
  • Ideals – such as a tendency toward spirituality and mysticism
  • Cognitive style – such as engrossed in fantasy

Prevalence

SPD affects approximately 1% of the general population and it is more common in males than in females. The onset of symptoms of SPD typically starts in late childhood or adolescence.

Symptoms of Schizoid Personality Disorder:

People with SPD:

  • Can be secretive
  • Have a tendency toward a solitary and sheltered lifestyle
  • Can be apathetic and aloof
  • Can come across as cold and callous
  • Don’t necessarily want to avoid others
  • Have an aversion to emotional expectations placed upon them (both negative and positive), emotional intimacy, and sharing information about themselves
  • Often lack sexual desire
  • Are unable to derive pleasure from most activities
  • Feel as though they are passive spectators rather than active participants in life
  • May possess a rich and elaborate but exclusively internal fantasy world. This is self-contained and free from the dangers and anxieties associated with emotional connection to persons and situations in the real world.
Individuals with SPD have, due to their creativity, made important contributions to science and other theoretical areas of knowledge such as math and physics.

Diagnosis of Schizoid Personality Disorder:

At least four of the following criteria must be satisfied for a diagnosis of SPD to be made:

  • Can be secretive
  • Neither desires nor enjoys close relationships, including being part of a family
  • Almost always chooses solitary activities
  • Has little, if any, interest in having sexual experiences with another person
  • Takes pleasure in few, if any, activities
  • Lacks close friends or confidants other than first-degree relatives
  • Appears indifferent to the praise or criticism of others
  • Shows emotional coldness, detachment, or flattened affection

Causes of Schizoid personality disorder:

The causes of SPD remain unknown, but biological and environmental factors have been implicated.

There is some evidence to suggest that there is a genetic link between SPD and schizophrenia, and SPD has been described as a schizophrenia-like personality disorder.

Schizoid Personality Disorder complications:

Complications of SPD include reduced quality of life and impaired overall functioning.

Bullying is particularly common toward people with this condition, and there are also high rates of suicidal thinking.

Treatment for Schizoid Personality Disorder:

  • Therapy People with SPD rarely seek treatment for their condition; however, those in treatment have the option of medication and/or psychotherapy (talk therapy).
  • Medications – Certain medications may reduce the symptoms of SPD as well as treat cooccurring mental disorders such as major depressive disorder.

Symptoms of Schizoid Personality Disorder:

People with SPD:

  • Can be secretive
  • Have a tendency toward a solitary and sheltered lifestyle
  • Can be apathetic and aloof
  • Can come across as cold and callous
  • Don’t necessarily want to avoid others
  • Have an aversion to emotional expectations placed upon them (both negative and positive), emotional intimacy, and sharing information about themselves
  • Often lack sexual desire
  • Are unable to derive pleasure from most activities
  • Feel as though they are passive spectators rather than active participants in life
  • May possess a rich and elaborate but exclusively internal fantasy world. This is self-contained and free from the dangers and anxieties associated with emotional connection to persons and situations in the real world.
Individuals with SPD have, due to their creativity, made important contributions to science and other theoretical areas of knowledge such as math and physics.

Diagnosis of Schizoid Personality Disorder:

At least four of the following criteria must be satisfied for a diagnosis of SPD to be made:

  • Can be secretive
  • Neither desires nor enjoys close relationships, including being part of a family
  • Almost always chooses solitary activities
  • Has little, if any, interest in having sexual experiences with another person
  • Takes pleasure in few, if any, activities
  • Lacks close friends or confidants other than first-degree relatives
  • Appears indifferent to the praise or criticism of others
  • Shows emotional coldness, detachment, or flattened affection

Causes of Schizoid personality disorder:

The causes of SPD remain unknown, but biological and environmental factors have been implicated.

There is some evidence to suggest that there is a genetic link between SPD and schizophrenia, and SPD has been described as a schizophrenia-like personality disorder.

Schizoid Personality Disorder complications

Complications of SPD include reduced quality of life and impaired overall functioning.

Bullying is particularly common toward people with this condition, and there are also high rates of suicidal thinking.

Treatment for Schizoid Personality Disorder:

  • Therapy People with SPD rarely seek treatment for their condition; however, those in treatment have the option of medication and/or psychotherapy (talk therapy).
  • Medications – Certain medications may reduce the symptoms of SPD as well as treat cooccurring mental disorders such as major depressive disorder.
Sources MAYO CLINIC | WIKIPEDIA – Fantasy_(psychology) | WIKIPEDIA – Bullying | WIKIPEDIA – Mental Disorder