Paranoid Personality Disorder

Paranoid Personality Disorder

Paranoid Personality Disorder

Paranoid personality disorder (PPD) is a Cluster A Personality Disorder characterized by paranoid delusions and a pervasive, longstanding suspiciousness and generalized mistrust of others.

Prevalence

PPD affects between 0.5 to 2.5% of the general population and is more common in males than it is in females.

Symptoms of Paranoid Personality Disorder:

Those with PPD:

  • Often, for unfounded reasons, feel that their lives are in danger and constantly search for evidence to support their suspicions. They can have a preoccupation with unsubstantiated “conspiratorial”” explanations of events both immediate to them and in the world at large. Individuals with PPD frequently get involved in legal battles and sue people or companies they believe are “out to get them.”
  • Are highly sensitive to criticism and are easily offended
  • Can be stubborn and refuse to acknowledge the role they play in problems or conflicts, believing that they are always right. Indeed, they can have a tendency to be self-aggrandizing and have a persistent self-referential attitude
  • Tend to develop negative stereotypes of others, especially those from different cultural groups

Risk Factors for Paranoid Personality Disorder:

PPD can have a profound effect on romantic relationships and can cause severe impairment in social, academic, relational, and occupational settings.

Those with PPD tend to be guarded and avoid intimacy with others, interpreting their motives as malevolent. They can be withdrawn and isolate themselves from society. Those with PPD can also be hostile, argumentative, callous, and aloof, leading to substantial interpersonal difficulties.

Diagnosis of Paranoid Personality Disorder:

For a diagnosis of PPD to be made, symptoms must be present from an early adult age and occur in a range of situations. A person must meet at least four out of the following criteria:

  • Suspects, without sufficient basis, that others are exploiting, harming, or deceiving them
  • Is preoccupied with unjustified doubts about the loyalty or trustworthiness of friends or associates
  • Is reluctant to confide in others because of unwarranted fear that the information will be used maliciously against them
  • Reads hidden meanings in the innocent remarks or casual looks of others
  • Persistently bears grudges – is unforgiving of insults, injuries, or slights
  • Perceives attacks on their character or reputation that are not apparent to others, and is quick to react angrily
  • Has recurrent suspicions, without justification, regarding fidelity of spouse or sexual partner

Causes of Paranoid Personality Disorder?

The causes of PPD remain unknown; however, biological, psychological, and social factors have all been implicated.

There appears to be a genetic link between PPD and schizophrenia. Psychological factors that contribute to the development of PPD are lack of self-awareness and holding the underlying belief that humans are generally unfriendly.

Treatment of Paranoid Personality Disorder:

Because of the pervasive distrust and suspiciousness that characterizes PPD, it is a notoriously difficult condition to treat.

Psychotherapy, antidepressants, antipsychotics, and anti-anxiety medications can all play a role in the treatment of PPD.

Symptoms of Paranoid Personality Disorder:

Those with PPD:

  • Often, for unfounded reasons, feel that their lives are in danger and constantly search for evidence to support their suspicions. They can have a preoccupation with unsubstantiated “conspiratorial”” explanations of events both immediate to them and in the world at large. Individuals with PPD frequently get involved in legal battles and sue people or companies they believe are “out to get them.”
  • Are highly sensitive to criticism and are easily offended
  • Can be stubborn and refuse to acknowledge the role they play in problems or conflicts, believing that they are always right. Indeed, they can have a tendency to be self-aggrandizing and have a persistent self-referential attitude
  • Tend to develop negative stereotypes of others, especially those from different cultural groups

Risk factors for Paranoid Personality Disorder:

PPD can have a profound effect on romantic relationships and can cause severe impairment in social, academic, relational, and occupational settings.

Those with PPD tend to be guarded and avoid intimacy with others, interpreting their motives as malevolent. They can be withdrawn and isolate themselves from society. Those with PPD can also be hostile, argumentative, callous, and aloof, leading to substantial interpersonal difficulties.

Diagnosis of Paranoid Personality Disorder?

For a diagnosis of PPD to be made, symptoms must be present from an early adult age and occur in a range of situations. A person must meet at least four out of the following criteria:

  • Suspects, without sufficient basis, that others are exploiting, harming, or deceiving them
  • Is preoccupied with unjustified doubts about the loyalty or trustworthiness of friends or associates
  • Is reluctant to confide in others because of unwarranted fear that the information will be used maliciously against them
  • Reads hidden meanings in the innocent remarks or casual looks of others
  • Persistently bears grudges – is unforgiving of insults, injuries, or slights
  • Perceives attacks on their character or reputation that are not apparent to others, and is quick to react angrily
  • Has recurrent suspicions, without justification, regarding fidelity of spouse or sexual partner

Causes of Paranoid Personality Disorder:

The causes of PPD remain unknown; however, biological, psychological, and social factors have all been implicated.

There appears to be a genetic link between PPD and schizophrenia. Psychological factors that contribute to the development of PPD are lack of self-awareness and holding the underlying belief that humans are generally unfriendly.

Treatment of Paranoid Personality Disorder:

Because of the pervasive distrust and suspiciousness that characterizes PPD, it is a notoriously difficult condition to treat.

Psychotherapy, antidepressants, antipsychotics, and anti-anxiety medications can all play a role in the treatment of PPD.

Sources MEDLINE | WIKIPEDIA – Paranoia | WIKIPEDIA – Delusion | WIKIPEDIA – Mistrust | WIKIPEDIA – Conspiracy | WIKIPEDIA – Self-referential | WIKIPEDIA – American Psychiatric Association | WIKIPEDIA – Antidepressant | WIKIPEDIA – Antipsychotic | WIKIPEDIA – Anti-anxiety