Schizotypal Personality Disorder

Schizotypal Personality Disorder

Schizotypal Personality Disorder

Schizotypal Personality Disorder (SPD) is a Cluster A Personality Disorder characterized by severe social anxiety, thought disorder, paranoia, odd or eccentric behaviors, unusual beliefs, and psychosis — such as hallucinations.

People with Schizotypal Personality Disorder find it hard to form close relationships and they think or believe unusual things and behave in unusual ways, beginning in early adulthood.

Prevalence

SPD affects approximately 3% of the general population and is more common in males than it is in females.

Symptoms of Schizotypal Personality Disorder:

People with SPD:

  • Often believe they have special powers such as:

    • Mental telepathy
    • The capacity to communicate with spirits via a medium
    • A supernatural ability to perceive events in the future
    • Beyond normal sensory contact such as clairvoyance
  • Either avoid developing close relationships with people or experience extreme discomfort maintaining close relationships due to beliefs that others have negative thoughts about them
  • Tend to be withdrawn and lead isolated lives
  • Have peculiar speech mannerisms, react oddly in conversations, or can be completely unresponsive
  • Can often be found talking and muttering to themselves

Symptoms of Schizotypal Personality Disorder:

At least five of the following symptoms must be present for a diagnosis of SPD to be made:

  • Ideas of reference – such as experiencing mundane events or mere coincidences and believing they have strong personal significance
  • Unusual beliefs, or magical or superstitious thinking
  • Abnormal perceptual experience – auditory hallucinations
  • Strange speech – rambling excessively during conversations
  • Paranoia
  • Inappropriate or limited interaction – flat emotions or inappropriate emotional responses
  • Bizarre behavior or appearance – like flamboyant attire
  • Lack or shortage of close friends
  • Excessive social anxiety that does not settle and that stems from paranoia rather than negative judgements about oneself

Causes of Schizotypal Personality Disorder:

The exact cause of SPD remains unknown; however, genetic and environmental factors have both been implicated. An individual’s risk of developing SPD may be greater if they have a relative who has schizophrenia or another psychotic disorder.

With regards to environmental factors, there is evidence to suggest that parenting styles, early separation, and trauma or neglect and abuse may increase the risk of developing SPD.

SPD often coexists with other conditions such as major depressive disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, and generalized social phobia.

Schizotypal Personality Disorder complications:

Complications of SPD include suicidal behavior and impaired career, social, academic, and relational functioning. Some persons with SPD may develop schizophrenia; however, most do not.

Treatment for Schizotypal Personality Disorder:

Treatment for SPD often includes a combination of medication —such as anti-psychotics — and one or more types of talk therapy such as cognitive behavioral therapy.

Many people can be helped by work and social activities that are suitable for their personality style.

Symptoms of Schizotypal Personality Disorder:

People with SPD:

  • Often believe they have special powers such as:

    • Mental telepathy
    • The capacity to communicate with spirits via a medium
    • A supernatural ability to perceive events in the future
    • Beyond normal sensory contact such as clairvoyance
  • Either avoid developing close relationships with people or experience extreme discomfort maintaining close relationships due to beliefs that others have negative thoughts about them
  • Tend to be withdrawn and lead isolated lives
  • Have peculiar speech mannerisms, react oddly in conversations, or can be completely unresponsive
  • Can often be found talking and muttering to themselves

Diagnosis of Schizotypal Personality Disorder:

At least five of the following symptoms must be present for a diagnosis of SPD to be made:

  • Ideas of reference – such as experiencing mundane events or mere coincidences and believing they have strong personal significance
  • Unusual beliefs, or magical or superstitious thinking
  • Abnormal perceptual experience – auditory hallucinations
  • Strange speech – rambling excessively during conversations
  • Paranoia
  • Inappropriate or limited interaction – flat emotions or inappropriate emotional responses
  • Bizarre behavior or appearance – like flamboyant attire
  • Lack or shortage of close friends
  • Excessive social anxiety that does not settle and that stems from paranoia rather than negative judgements about oneself

Causes of Schizotypal Personality Disorder:

The exact cause of SPD remains unknown; however, genetic and environmental factors have both been implicated. An individual’s risk of developing SPD may be greater if they have a relative who has schizophrenia or another psychotic disorder.

With regards to environmental factors, there is evidence to suggest that parenting styles, early separation, and trauma or neglect and abuse may increase the risk of developing SPD.

SPD often coexists with other conditions such as major depressive disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, and generalized social phobia.

Schizotypal Personality Disorder complications:

Complications of SPD include suicidal behavior and impaired career, social, academic, and relational functioning. Some persons with SPD may develop schizophrenia; however, most do not.

Treatment for Schizotypal Personality Disorder:

Treatment for SPD often includes a combination of medication —such as anti-psychotics — and one or more types of talk therapy such as cognitive behavioral therapy.

Many people can be helped by work and social activities that are suitable for their personality style.

Source MAYO CLINIC | WIKIPEDIA – Social Anxiety | WIKIPEDIA – Thought Disorder | WIKIPEDIA – Psychosis | WIKIPEDIA – Coincidence | WIKIPEDIA – Parenting Styles | WIKIPEDIA – Social Phobia | WIKIPEDIA – Schizophrenia