Dysthymic Disorder

Dysthymic Disorder

Dysthymic Disorder

Dysthymia, also known as persistent depressive disorder (PDD), is a mood disorder characterized by the same mental and physical symptoms as depression but they last longer. Dysthymia is less short-lived and severe than major depressive disorder.

Prevalence

Cyclothymia can occur in childhood and adulthood, and the average age onset of this condition is 31. Globally, dysthymia affects 1.5% of population, although the prevalence in the United States tends to be somewhat higher compared with rates in other countries. Dysthymia is more common in women than in men.

Cyclothymia often coexists with other conditions such as anxiety disorder (up to 50%), personality disorders (up to 40%), somatoform disorders (up to 45%) and substance abuse (up to 50%).

Symptoms of Dysthymic Disorder:

The diagnostic criteria for cyclothymia include:

  • Feeling depressed or appearing depressed to others most of the time for two years or more
  • At least two or more depressive symptoms such as decreased or increased appetite; fatigue or low energy; and feelings of hopelessness, worthlessness, and guilt
  • Depressive symptoms cannot be absent for greater than two consecutive months.
Symptoms persist for at least two years in adulthood and one year in children and adolescents.

Diagnosing Dysthymia:

As dysthymia is a chronic disorder, people with this condition may believe that depression is a part of their character, so they can experience symptoms for several years before consulting a doctor and receiving a diagnosis.

Risk Factors for Dysthymic Disorder:

People with mild dysthymia tend to be withdrawn and avoid stressful situations.

Severe dysthymia can cause profound impairment in functioning at home, work, school, or social settings, and/or with activities of daily living.

Causes of Dysthymic Disorder:

The exact cause of dysthymia is unknown, but the following factors have been implicated:

  • Irregularities in brain chemistry
  • Genetics – having a first-degree relative with a depressive disorder increases the risk of developing cyclothymia
  • Environmental or life events – such as loss of a parent during childhood or financial difficulty
  • Personality traits such as negativity, having low self-esteem, being pessimistic, and having a self-critical attitude

Medications for Dysthymic Disorder can include:

Complications of dysthymia include self-harm, suicide, and double depression — when a person with this condition develops a coexistent major depressive disorder.

Treatment of Dysthymic Disorder:

The two main treatment options for dysthymia are:

  • Antidepressant medications such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors
  • Talk therapy (psychotherapy) such as cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT)

Symptoms of Dysthymic Disorder:

The diagnostic criteria for cyclothymia include:

  • Feeling depressed or appearing depressed to others most of the time for two years or more
  • At least two or more depressive symptoms such as decreased or increased appetite; fatigue or low energy; and feelings of hopelessness, worthlessness, and guilt
  • Depressive symptoms cannot be absent for greater than two consecutive months.
Symptoms persist for at least two years in adulthood and one year in children and adolescents.

Diagnosing Dysthymic Disorder:

As dysthymia is a chronic disorder, people with this condition may believe that depression is a part of their character, so they can experience symptoms for several years before consulting a doctor and receiving a diagnosis.

Risk Factors for Dysthymic Disorder:

People with mild dysthymia tend to be withdrawn and avoid stressful situations. Severe dysthymia can cause profound impairment in functioning at home, work, school, or social settings, and/or with activities of daily living.

Dysthymic Disorder complications:

Complications of dysthymia include self-harm, suicide, and double depression — when a person with this condition develops a coexistent major depressive disorder.

Treatment of Dysthymic Disorder:

The two main treatment options for dysthymia are:

  • Antidepressant medications such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors
  • Talk therapy (psychotherapy) such as cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT)
Source MAYO CLINIC | WIKIPEDIA – Mood Disorder | WIKIPEDIA – Major Depressive Disorder | WIKIPEDIA – Acute (medicine)