Phencyclidine Dependence

Phencyclidine Dependence

Phencyclidine Dependence

Phencyclidine dependence is characterized by tolerance to increasing doses to achieve the desired effect, inability to control one’s intake, and continued use despite an awareness of the harmful effects.

Phencyclidine (PCP) is a hallucinogenic drug used recreationally for its mind-altering effects, particularly its ability to induce a dissociative state. The street names of PCP include angel dust, peace pills, and belladonna, amongst others.
PCP is available in tablet, capsule, or powder form and can be smoked, snorted, injected, or ingested orally. It may also be mixed with cannabis, tobacco, and/or other substances. Depending on the method used, PCP effects can last from four to six hours.

Prevalence

As of 2017, approximately 3% of those over the age of 25 in the US reported using PCP at some point in their lives.

Symptoms of Opioid Dependency:

Mental, behavioral, and psychological effects of PCP include:

  • Psychotic symptoms – hallucinations, delusional beliefs, and a sense of not being in touch with reality or “losing one’s mind’”
  • Mood disturbances
  • Anxiety
  • Memory loss
  • Cognitive impairment
  • Difficulties with speech
  • Suicidal behavior
  • Euphoria
  • Irritability
  • Agitation
  • Aggression

Physical effects of PCP include:

  • Increased strength
  • Tachycardia – a fast heart rate
  • Raised blood pressure
  • Rapid breathing
  • Seizure
  • Chills
  • Muscle cramps
  • Vomiting
  • Dehydration

Risk factors for Opioid Dependence:

The effects of PCP use may persist for up to twelve months after quitting. There is also an increased risk of developing schizophrenia in users who experience PCP-induced psychosis.

People who use excessive amounts of PCP over a prolonged period of time are at increased risk of becoming dependent on this drug. PCP dependence can cause impairment in functioning at home, work, school, or social settings and can place a tremendous amount of stress and strain on interpersonal relationships.

Treatment for Opioid Dependence:

People with PCP dependence can receive treatment in inpatient or outpatient healthcare settings depending on the severity of their withdrawal symptoms and other factors such as medical needs and additional psychiatric conditions and the amount of social support available.

  • Care during withdrawal – Management of PCP withdrawal mostly consists of supportive care — regulating breathing, controlling circulation, and optimizing body temperature — and, in the early stages, treating psychiatric symptoms. 
  • Medications – Benzodiazepines are the first-line medicines used to manage agitation and seizures (when present). Antipsychotics have been used to treat psychotic symptoms, but they are associated with adverse effects and so should be used sparingly and with caution and under the supervision of a psychiatrist.
  • Aftercare – Once the withdrawal process is complete, addiction treatment therapy and aftercare will start.  These provide people who are in recovery with the skills and support they will need to prevent relapse.

Symptoms of Opioid Dependency

Mental, behavioral, and psychological effects of PCP include:

  • Psychotic symptoms – hallucinations, delusional beliefs, and a sense of not being in touch with reality or “losing one’s mind’”
  • Mood disturbances
  • Anxiety
  • Memory loss
  • Cognitive impairment
  • Difficulties with speech
  • Suicidal behavior
  • Euphoria
  • Irritability
  • Agitation
  • Aggression

Physical effects of PCP include:

  • Increased strength
  • Tachycardia – a fast heart rate
  • Raised blood pressure
  • Rapid breathing
  • Seizure
  • Chills
  • Muscle cramps
  • Vomiting
  • Dehydration

Risk factors for Opioid Dependence

The effects of PCP use may persist for up to twelve months after quitting. There is also an increased risk of developing schizophrenia in users who experience PCP-induced psychosis.

People who use excessive amounts of PCP over a prolonged period of time are at increased risk of becoming dependent on this drug. PCP dependence can cause impairment in functioning at home, work, school, or social settings and can place a tremendous amount of stress and strain on interpersonal relationships.

Treatment for Opioid Dependence:

People with PCP dependence can receive treatment in inpatient or outpatient healthcare settings depending on the severity of their withdrawal symptoms and other factors such as medical needs and additional psychiatric conditions and the amount of social support available.

  • Care during withdrawal – Management of PCP withdrawal mostly consists of supportive care — regulating breathing, controlling circulation, and optimizing body temperature — and, in the early stages, treating psychiatric symptoms. 
  • Medications – Benzodiazepines are the first-line medicines used to manage agitation and seizures (when present). Antipsychotics have been used to treat psychotic symptoms, but they are associated with adverse effects and so should be used sparingly and with caution and under the supervision of a psychiatrist.
  • Aftercare – Once the withdrawal process is complete, addiction treatment therapy and aftercare will start.  These provide people who are in recovery with the skills and support they will need to prevent relapse.
Sources ADDICTION | WIKIPEDIA – Benzodiazepine | DrugAbuse.com – Addiction Treatment Therapies