Narcissistic Personality Disorder

Narcissistic Personality Disorder

Narcissistic Personality Disorder

Narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) is a Cluster B Personality Disorder characterized by the triad of:

  1. An inflated sense of self-importance
  2. An excessive need for admiration
  3. Lack of empathy toward other people

Prevalence

NPD affects approximately 1% of the general population and occurs slightly more often in men than it does in women. The age of onset of NPD is usually in late childhood or early adulthood.

Symptoms of Narcissistic Personality Disorder:

The individual with NPD usually:

  • Displays arrogance and a distorted sense of entitlement and superiority
  • Seeks to establish abusive power and control relationships — both personal and professional — over others
  • Is often preoccupied with fantasies of success and/or is obsessed about their appearance
  • Can exaggerate their skills, accomplishments, and their degree of intimacy with those they consider to be of high or elevated status
  • Typically don’t possess the personal qualities or accomplishments for which they demand respect and status
  • Tend to monopolize conversations and/or to become impatient and resentful of other people who talk about themselves
  • Socially, they can be extremely critical and insensitive toward others
  • Usually have a fragile ego and are typically highly sensitive to receiving criticism themselves

Diagnosis of Narcissistic Personality Disorder:

An individual must satisfy at least five out of the following nine criteria to receive a diagnosis of NPD:

  • Absurd exaggeration of importance with expectations of preferential treatment from other people
  • Continually demeaning, bullying, and belittling others
  • Exploiting others to achieve personal gain
  • Lack of empathy for the adverse effects they have on the feelings, wishes, and needs of other people
  • Preoccupation with fantasies of power, success, intelligence, and attractiveness
  • Self-perception of being superior and associated with high-status people and institutions
  • Need for incessant admiration from others
  • Sense of entitlement to special treatment and obedience from others
  • Intense envy of others, and the belief that others are equally envious of them

Causes of Narcissistic Personality Disorder:

The exact causes of NPD remain unknown; however, genetic and environmental factors have been implicated.

An individual is at increased risk of developing NPD if he or she has a family history of this condition. Environmental factors include adverse childhood experiences, unpredictable or unreliable caregiving by parents when younger, and learning the behaviors of psychological manipulation from authority figures and/or peers.

Narcissistic Personality Disorder complications:

Complications of NPD can include relationship difficulties, conflicts at the workplace resulting in redundancy, coexistent major depressive disorder or generalized anxiety disorder, addiction problems such as alcohol dependency syndrome, and increased risk of suicidal behavior.

Treatment for Narcissistic Personality Disorder:

Psychotherapy or talking therapy is the treatment of choice for people with NPD.

It can help those with this condition to relate better with other people and to recognize and accept their actual competence and potential so they can tolerate criticisms and/or failures in a healthier and more adaptive way.

Symptoms of Narcissistic Personality Disorder:

The individual with NPD usually:

  • Displays arrogance and a distorted sense of entitlement and superiority
  • Seeks to establish abusive power and control relationships — both personal and professional — over others
  • Is often preoccupied with fantasies of success and/or is obsessed about their appearance
  • Can exaggerate their skills, accomplishments, and their degree of intimacy with those they consider to be of high or elevated status
  • Typically don’t possess the personal qualities or accomplishments for which they demand respect and status
  • Tend to monopolize conversations and/or to become impatient and resentful of other people who talk about themselves
  • Socially, they can be extremely critical and insensitive toward others
  • Usually have a fragile ego and are typically highly sensitive to receiving criticism themselves

Risk factors for Narcissistic Personality Disorder:

An individual must satisfy at least five out of the following nine criteria to receive a diagnosis of NPD:

  • Absurd exaggeration of importance with expectations of preferential treatment from other people
  • Continually demeaning, bullying, and belittling others
  • Exploiting others to achieve personal gain
  • Lack of empathy for the adverse effects they have on the feelings, wishes, and needs of other people
  • Preoccupation with fantasies of power, success, intelligence, and attractiveness
  • Self-perception of being superior and associated with high-status people and institutions
  • Need for incessant admiration from others
  • Sense of entitlement to special treatment and obedience from others
  • Intense envy of others, and the belief that others are equally envious of them

Causes of Narcissistic Personality Disorder:

The exact causes of NPD remain unknown; however, genetic and environmental factors have been implicated.

An individual is at increased risk of developing NPD if he or she has a family history of this condition. Environmental factors include adverse childhood experiences, unpredictable or unreliable caregiving by parents when younger, and learning the behaviors of psychological manipulation from authority figures and/or peers.

Narcissistic Personality Disorder complications:

Complications of NPD can include relationship difficulties, conflicts at the workplace resulting in redundancy, coexistent major depressive disorder or generalized anxiety disorder, addiction problems such as alcohol dependency syndrome, and increased risk of suicidal behavior.

Treatment for Narcissistic Personality Disorder:

Psychotherapy or talking therapy is the treatment of choice for people with NPD.

It can help those with this condition to relate better with other people and to recognize and accept their actual competence and potential so they can tolerate criticisms and/or failures in a healthier and more adaptive way.

Source MAYO CLINIC | WIKIPEDIA – Grandiosity | WIKIPEDIA – Admiration | WIKIPEDIA – Empathy | WIKIPEDIA – Abusive Power and Control | WIKIPEDIA – Vanity | WIKIPEDIA – DSM-5 | WIKIPEDIA – Entitlement | WIKIPEDIA – Psychological Manipulation