Brief psychotic disorder (BPD) is a mental health condition characterized by the presence of at least one short-term psychotic symptom — such as delusions, hallucinations, incoherent speech, or behavioral disturbances — which lasts from one day to one month in duration and which is often accompanied by significant distress. BPD is usually preceded by a significant stressor such as bereavement or childbirth.
It’s only a brief psychotic disorder if the person fully reverts to their previous level of functioning after the onset.
There are three types of BPD:
- BPD with Marked Stressor(s) — also known as brief reactive psychosis. The onset of psychotic symptoms occurs following a traumatic event that would be stressful for anyone in similar circumstances in the same culture.
- BPD without Marked Stressor(s) — is the onset of psychotic symptoms that occur in the absence of a traumatic event that would be stressful for anyone in similar circumstances in the same culture.
- BPD with Postpartum Onset — is defined as the onset of psychotic symptoms that occur within four weeks of childbirth.
The male to female ratio of BPD is 1:2, and the condition is more common in people with a personality disorder. The onset of symptoms of BPD is usually in the late 30s and early 40s, but it can appear in adolescence.
The rates of BPD are higher in the developing world than in the developed world, and it may account for 9% of cases of first-onset psychosis. The chance of relapse is high.